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Heredity and Evolution
How is the equal genetic contribution of male and female parents ensured in the progeny?
In humans, sex is determined genetically. Humans have 23 pairs/46 chromosomes. Out of 23 pairs, 22 pairs are called autosomes. The remaining one pair is called sex chromosomes. Females have a perfect pair of two X chromosomes, whereas males have one X and one Y chromosome. During fertilization, the baby girl is born when a sperm carrying "X" chromosome fuses with the egg, whereas the fertilization of a sperm carrying "Y" chromosomes with the egg cell results in the birth of the baby boy. Thus, half of the genetic material comes from male while the half comes from female.
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