Chapter 4: Carbon and Its Compounds

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Q
Carbon and Its Compound

Question:

Draw the electron dot structures for:

(a) ethanoic acid

(b) H2S

(c) propanone

(d) F2

Answer:

(a)- The ethanoic acid contains two carbon atoms and carboxylic acid as a functional group. So, the molecular formula of ethanoic acid is CH3COOH and its molecular structure is given below:

The atomic number of carbon is 6 and its electronic configuration is (2, 4) while the atomic number of oxygen is 8 and its electronic configuration is (2, 6). This means that carbon needs four electrons while oxygen needs two electrons each to complete their octet. So, one carbon will share one electron each with three hydrogen atoms and one electron with carbon atom while another carbon atom will share one electron with a carbon atom and two electrons with an oxygen atom. Oxygen atom share one electron with hydrogen and one electron with a carbon atom. The electron dot structure of ethanoic acid is shown below:

(b)- The chemical name of H2S is hydrogen sulphide. The atomic number of sulphur is 16 and its electronic configuration is (2, 8, 6). This means that sulphur needs two electrons while hydrogen needs one electron each to complete their octet. So, sulphur will share one electron each with two hydrogen atoms. Thus, sulphur contains two bonded electron pairs and two lone pairs. The electron dot structure of hydrogen sulphide is shown below:

(c)- The propanone contains three carbon atoms and ketone as a functional group. So, the molecular formula of propanone is CH3COCH3 and its molecular structure is given below:

The atomic number of carbon is 6 and its electronic configuration is (2, 4) while the atomic number of oxygen is 8 and its electronic configuration is (2, 6). This means that carbon needs four electrons while oxygen needs two electrons each to complete their octet. So, the given structure contains two methyl group which is formed when carbon shared one electron each with three hydrogen atoms. The carbon in middle share two electrons each with other carbon atoms and two-electron with the oxygen atom. The electron dot structure of propanone is shown below:

(d)-The atomic number of fluorine is 9 and its electronic configuration is (2, 7). This means that fluorine needs one electron to complete its octet.  Fluorine will share one electron with another fluorine atom. So, the compound contains one bonded electron pair and three lone pairs on each fluorine atom. The electron dot structure of the difluorine molecule is shown below:


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