Chapter 4: Carbon and Its Compounds

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Carbon and Its Compound


Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap.


When soaps are added to hard water, the calcium or magnesium ions present in hard water displace sodium or potassium from the soap molecule to form insoluble calcium or magnesium salts of fatty acids called scum. The scum is the layer of dirt found on the surface of the liquid and it minimizes the cleaning property of soaps in hard water.

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