Chapter 4: Carbon and Its Compounds

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Carbon and Its Compound


How can ethanol and ethanoic acid be differentiated on the basis of their physical and chemical properties?


Physical properties of ethanol and ethanoic acid:

Ethanol is a liquid at room temperature that has a pleasant odour. Its melting point is -114.1โฐC while its boiling point is 78.37โฐC.

Ethanoic acid is liquid at room temperature and it often freezes at low temperatures. Its melting point and boiling point are 16.6โฐC and 118โฐC respectively. It has a strong vinegar-like odour.

Chemical properties of ethanol and ethanoic acid:

(i) Litmus Test: Ethanol is a neutral solution and shows no change in litmus paper while ethanoic acid converts blue litmus paper to red.

(ii) Reaction with baking soda: Ethanol does not react with baking soda while ethanoic acid forms brisk effervescence due to the formation of carbon dioxide gas.

{color{Blue} oldsymbol{NaHC{ O }_{ 3 }(s)+C{ H }_{ 3 }COOH(aq)
ightarrow C{ H }_{ 3 }COONa(aq)+C{ O }_{ 2 }(g)+{ H }_{ 2 }O(l)}}

(iii) Reaction with alkaline potassium permanganate: On heating, the mixture of ethanol and alkaline potassium permanganate, the pink color of the solution disappears due to the formation of ethanoic acid.

{color{Blue} oldsymbol{mathbf{}C{ H }_{ 3 }C{ H }_{ 2 }OH(aq)xrightarrow [ ]{ Alk.KMn{ O }_{ 4 } } C{ H }_{ 3 }COOH(aq)}}

Ethanoic acid will not react with alkaline potassium permanganate.

(iv) Reaction with sodium hydroxide: Ethanol will not react with sodium hydroxide. Ethanoic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form a salt of sodium acetate along with water.

oldsymbol{	extbf{}{color{Blue} oldsymbol{mathbf{}}C{ H }_{ 3 }COOH(aq)+NaOH(aq)
ightarrow C{ H }_{ 3 }COONa(aq)+{ H }_{ 2 }O(l)}}

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