Chapter 4: Soil

Q&A -Ask Doubts and Get Answers



Sketch the cross section of soil and label the various layers.


The three layers of soil in the soil profile are:

1. A-horizon (Top-soil)The top layer of soil is called A-horizon or top-soil. This layer is dark in color because it is rich in minerals and humus. Humus makes this layer fertile. The plant roots grow in this layer.

2. B-horizon (Sub-soil)The layer of soil which is just below the top-soil is called B-horizon or sub-soil. This layer is made up of slightly bigger rock particles than topsoil. This layer is rich in minerals but has very little humus. Due to this, sub-soil is less fertile as compared to the top-soil.

3. C-horizon (Sub-stratum)The layer of soil just below the sub-soil is called C-horizon or sub-stratum. This layer is made up of small lumps of broken rocks with cracks and crevices.

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