Chapter 2: Microorganisms: Friend and Foe

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Microorganisms: Friend and Foe


Write 10 lines on the usefulness of microorganisms in our lives.


Microorganisms play an important role in our lives. Microorganisms are useful for us because of the following reasons:

(1) Some bacteria (Lactobacillus) are responsible for the formation of curd from milk.

(2) They are used to make bread and cakes.

(3) Some microorganisms like bacteria and fungi decompose the organic matter present in dead plants and animals and convert it into simple substances which mix up with the soil and are again used by the plants for their growth.

(4) Rhizobium is a bacteria (present in the root nodules of leguminous plants), it fixes atmospheric nitrogen gas and enriches the fertility of the soil by releasing nitrogen compounds in the soil.

(5) Microorganisms are used for the manufacture of alcohol, beer, wine, and vinegar on large scale. In this sugar of grains is converted into alcohol by yeast. This process is known as fermentation.

(6) They are used to make antibiotics. Large numbers of antibiotics like Penicillin, Streptomycin, and Erythromycin are produced from bacteria and fungi. 

(7) Certain microbes are used to treat sewage and industrial effluents.

(8) They are used to prepare vaccines for various harmful diseases.

(9) Some bacteria are present in our body that help in the proper digestion of the food.

(10) Yeast is used in the preparation of Indian delicacies like Idli, bhaturas etc.

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