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Reaching the Age of Adolescence
Write notes on—
(a) Adam’s apple.
(b) Secondary sexual characters.
(c) Sex determination in the unborn baby.
(a) During puberty boys develop a larger voice box (larynx). This can be seen in boys as a protruding part of the throat called Adam’s apple. The larynx is small in girls so it is not clearly visible. Boys have a deep voice and girls have a very high-pitched voice.
(b) During puberty the reproductive organs start producing sperms and ova in boys and girls. Breast development occurs in girls and facial hair, mustaches, and beards begin to grow in boys. All these features help to distinguish the male from female is called secondary sexual characters.
Secondary characters in males are:
- Hair growth on the face, chest, and underarms.
- Shoulder and chest broaden.
- Adam’s apple develops in the front throat in boys.
Secondary characters in females are:
- Development of breast.
- Hips broaden and become curved.
- Hair grows under the arms.
All human beings have 23 pairs (46) of chromosomes in the nuclei of their normal body cell. Out of these 1 pair (2) of chromosomes are called sex chromosomes. There are two types of sex chromosomes: X and Y chromosome. The gametes (sperm and ova) contain only 23 single chromosomes. Hence, they have only one sex chromosome (either X or Y). In females, all the gametes (eggs) contain X chromosomes. On the other hand, in males, half of the gametes (sperms) have X chromosomes and half of the gametes have Y chromosomes. The baby developed from XX combination of sex chromosomes is a girl and the baby developed from XY combination of sex chromosomes is a boy. Thus, the sex chromosomes of the father determine the sex of the baby.
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