Chapter 4: Structure of the Atom

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Structure of Atom

Question:

Explain with examples (i) Atomic number, (ii) Mass number,(iii) Isotopes, and iv) Isobars. Give any two uses of isotopes.

Answer:

(i) The atomic number of the element is equal to the number of protons present in the nucleus of the atom. The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons present in the atom.

Atomic number (Z)= Number of Protons = Number of Electrons

(ii) The mass number is defined as the total number of nucleons, which is the total number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of the atom.

Mass number (A)= Number of Protons + Number of Neutrons

(iii) The isotopes are the variant of the particular chemical element which has the same atomic number but a different mass number. For example, hydrogen has three isotopes, protiumleft ( _{1}^{1}	extrm{H} 
ight ), deuterium left ( _{1}^{2}	extrm{D} 
ight ), and tritium  left ( _{1}^{3}	extrm{T} 
ight ). These isotopes have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.

Applications of isotopes:

(a) An isotope of uraniumleft ( _{}^{235}	extrm{U} 
ight ) is used as a fuel in nuclear reactors.

(b) An isotope of cobalt left ( _{}^{60}	extrm{Co} 
ight ) is used in the treatment of cancer.

(c) An isotope of iodine left ( _{}^{131}	extrm{I} 
ight ) is used in the treatment of goitre.

(iv) Isobars are the variant of the particular chemical element which has the same mass number but a different atomic number. For example,  _{26}^{58}	extrm{Fe}and  _{27}^{58}	extrm{Co}are isobars because they have the same mass number but a different atomic numbers.


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