Chapter - 5 Sound

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Explain the working and application of a sonar.


SONAR stands for Sound Navigation and Ranging. SONAR is a device that uses ultrasonic waves to measure the distance, direction and speed of underwater objects like submarine, it is also used to measure the depth of the sea or ocean.

SONAR is based on the application of reflection of sound and ultrasonic sound waves. It consists of a transmitter that produces ultrasonic waves and a detector that received the reflected back sound. The signal is recorded on the receiving end and then it is converted into an electrical signal.


If the time interval between transmission and receiving of ultrasound signal is ‘t’, the speed of the sound wave in seawater is ‘v’ and the distance between the obstacle and the ship is ‘d’. The total distance covered by the signal in time ‘t’ is 2d.

So, by using the relation

Distance = Speed x Time

2d = v x t

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