Class 8 - Biology Olympiad

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- 1 Courses
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₹ 499 ₹ 99950% off

We provide the class 8 Maths, Science & Olympiad study material, worksheet, question paper & solutions online. Now enjoy learning of all course material prepared by our experts.

Edusaksham provides visual and interesting exercises to clarify complex ideas with regards to numerical issues. The concepts instructed in class eighth of CBSE are firmly related to the ideas showed later on in class ninth. Edusaksham class 8 course enables the focus to board tests and other further selection tests like Maths, Science Olympiads and NTSE without any difficulty. Top quality representation methods empower markable enthusiasm for Learning science.

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Edusaksham provides chapter wise tests with complete solutions, explanation with clarifications. We treat a few inquiries as a piece of the Learning itself, as you experience recordings for solving CBSE class 8 Mathematics and Science worksheets. It guarantees that the student isn't just getting ideas yet additionally applying it.

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- 100+ E-Learning Videos
- 100 Conceptual Notes for Class 8 maths
- 300+ self-indulging friendly worksheets
- 2200+ Questions
- Detailed Explanations for each question
- Difficulty Levels viz. for each test

**FEATURES OF THE COURSE :**

• Exhaustive practice tests

• Friendly self-indulging worksheets

• Progressive Practice patterns

• Personalized Learning Dashboard

• Concept-wise Analytics

• Instant feedback mechanism

• All India comparison of progress

• Unlimited attempts

**BENEFITS OF THE COURSE :**

• Improved performance – With our scientifically designed content significant improvements in performance will be attained.

• Attain the desired IQ – Get the desired IQ in 8th class mathematics with our exhaustive maths models for class 8 CBSE.

• Easy tracking of progress – We provide easy tracking facility to help you understand how you are progressing with every step in the course.

• Self-paced learning – Every individual has a different learning pace. Keeping that in mind, we have designed the course to be self-paced.

• Identify focus areas – Students may be better in certain concepts than others. This course will facilitate them for a better understanding of the areas where they need to focus more.

• Build strong foundations – With this course, we aim to help a child understand every concept of the subject so that their foundation in mathematics becomes very strong.

• Simple parent’s supervision – Parents will be able to monitor their children’s performance easily with the features provided in the course.

• Quick re-learning – Even if a child fails at solving a problem, they will be able to solve the problems again till they get it, thus allowing room for re-learning.

**COURSES OFFERED :**

• Class 8 – Maths - Part 1 (293 lessons)

• Class 8 – Maths – Part 2 (256 lessons)

• Class 8 – Exam Revision

**SYLLABUS :**

- Chapter 1 - RATIONAL NUMBER
- Chapter 2 - LINEAR EQUATION IN ONE VARIABLE
- Chapter 3 - UNDERSTANDING QUADRILATERALS
- Chapter 4 - PRACTICAL GEOMETRY
- Chapter 5 - DATA HANDLING
- Chapter 6 - SQUARE AND SQUARE ROOTS
- Chapter 7 - CUBES AND CUBE ROOTS
- Chapter 8 - COMPARISON QUANTITIES
- Chapter 9 - ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION AND IDENTITIES
- Chapter 10 - VISUALIZING SOLID SHAPES
- Chapter 11 - MENSURATION
- Chapter 12 - EXPONENTS AND POWERS
- Chapter 13 - DIRECT AND INVERSE PROPERTIES
- Chapter 14 - FACTORISATION
- Chapter 15 - INTRODUCTION TO GRAPHS
- Chapter 16 - PLAYING WITH NUMBERS

**DETAILED SYLLABUS :**

**1. Rational Numbers**

1.1 Introduction to rational number

1.2 Properties of Rational Numbers

1.2.1 Closure

1.2.2 Commutativity

1.2.3 Associativity

1.2.4 The Role of Zero

1.2.5 The Role of 1

1.2.6 Negative of a number

1.2.7 Reciprocal

1.3 Representation of Rational Numbers on the Number Line

1.4 Rational Number between Two Rational Numbers

**2. Linear Equation in One Variable**

2.1 Linear Equations in One Variable – Introduction

2.2 Linear Equations in One Variable

2.2.1 Solving Equations which have Linear Expressions on one side and Numbers on the other side

2.2.2 Solving Equations having the Variable on both sides

2.2.3 Reducing Equations to simpler form

2.2.4 Equations reducible to the Linear Form

**3 Understanding Quadrilaterals**

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Polygon

3.2.1 Classification of Polygons

3.2.2 Diagonals

3.2.3 Convex and concave polygons

3.2.4 Regular and irregular polygons

3.2.5 Angle sum property

3.3 Sum of the Measures of the Exterior Angles of a Polygon

3.4 Types of Quadrilaterals

3.4.1 Trapeziums

3.4.2 Kite

3.4.3 Parallelogram

3.4.4 Elements of a parallelogram

3.4.5 Angles of a parallelogram

3.4.6 Diagonals of a parallelogram

3.5 Special Parallelograms

3.5.1 Rhombus

3.5.2 A Rectangle

3.5.3 A Square

**4 Practical Geometry**

4.1 Constructing a Quadrilateral

4.1.1 When the lengths of four sides and a diagonal are given

4.1.2 When two diagonals and three sides are given

4.1.3 When two adjacent sides and three angles are known

4.1.4 When three sides and two included angles are given

4.2 Some Special Cases

**5 Data Handling**

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Organising Data

5.3 Grouping Data

5.3.1 Grouping Data

5.3.2 Bars with a difference

5.4 Circle Graph or Pie Chart

5.4.1 Circle Graph or Pie Chart

5.4.2 Drawing pie charts

5.5 Chance and Probability

5.5.1 Getting a result

5.5.2 Equally likely outcomes:

5.5.3 Linking chances to probability

5.5.4 Outcomes as events

5.5.5 Chance and probability related to real life

**6 Square and Square Root**

6.1 Introduction to Square Roots

6.2 Properties of Square Numbers

6.3 Some More Interesting Patterns

6.4 Finding the Square of a Number

6.4.1 Finding the Square of a Number

6.4.2 Other patterns in squares

6.4.3 Pythagorean triplets

6.5 Square Roots

6.5.1 Finding square roots

6.5.2 Finding square root through repeated subtraction

6.5.3 Finding square root through prime factorisation

6.5.4 Finding square root by division method

6.6 Square Roots of Decimals

6.7 Estimating Square Root

**7 Cubes and Cube Root**

7.1 Cubes

7.1.1 Cubes

7.1.2 Some Interesting Patterns

7.1.3 Smallest multiple that is a perfect cube

7.2 Cube Roots

7.2.1 Cube Roots

7.2.2 Cube root through prime factorisation method

7.2.3 Cube root of a cube number

7.3 Cube Roots - Cube root using unit digit method

**8 Comparing Quantities**

8.1 Comparing Quantities

8.1.1 Recalling Ratios and Percentages

8.1.2 Finding the Increase or Decrease Per cent

8.1.3 Finding Discounts

8.1.4 Estimation in percentages

8.2 Prices Related to Buying and Selling (Profit and Loss)

8.3 Sales Tax/Value Added Tax

8.4 Compound Interest

8.4.1 Compound Interest

8.4.2 Deducing a Formula for Compound Interest

8.4.3 Rate Compounded Annually or Half Yearly (Semi Annually)

8.4.4 Applications of Compound Interest Formula

**9 Algebraic Expression and Identities**

9.1 What are Expressions?

9.2 Terms, Factors and Coefficients

9.3 Monomials, Binomials and Polynomials

9.4 Like and Unlike Terms

9.5 Addition and Subtraction of Algebraic Expressions

9.6 Multiplication of Algebraic Expressions

9.6.1 Multiplying a Monomial by a Monomial

9.6.2 Multiplying two monomials

9.6.3 Multiplying three or more monomials

9.6.4 Multiplying a Monomial by a Polynomial

9.6.5 Multiplying a monomial by a binomial

9.6.6 Multiplying a monomial by a trinomial

9.6.7 Multiplying a Polynomial by a Polynomial

9.6.8 Multiplying a binomial by a binomial

9.6.9 Multiplying a binomial by a trinomial

9.7 Identities

9.7.1 Standard Identities

9.7.2 Applying Identities

**10 Visualizing Solid Shape**

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Views of 3D-Shapes

10.3 Mapping Space around Us

10.4 Faces, Edges and Vertices

**11 Mensuration**

11.1 Mensuration – Introduction

11.2 Area of Trapezium

11.3 Area of a General Quadrilateral

11.4 Area of a Polygon

11.5 Surface Area

11.5.1 Cuboid

11.5.2 Cube

11.5.3 Cylinder

11.6 Volume

11.6.1 Cuboid

11.6.2 Cube

11.6.3 Cylinder

11.7 Volume and Capacity

**12 Exponents and Powers**

12.1 Exponents & Powers

12.2 Powers with Negative Exponents

12.3 Laws of Exponents

12.4 Use of Exponents to Express Small Numbers in Standard Form

12.4.1 Use of Exponents to Express Small Numbers in Standard Form

12.4.2 Use of Exponents to Express Small Numbers in Standard Form - Comparing very large and very small numbers

**13 Direct and Inverse Proportion**

13.1 Direct Proportions

13.2 Inverse Proportions

**14 Factorization**

14.1 Factorization

14.1.1 Factors of natural numbers

14.1.2 Factors of algebraic expressions

14.1.3 Method of common factors

14.1.4 Factorisation by regrouping terms

14.1.5 Factorisation using identities

14.1.6 Factors of the form ( x + a) ( x + b)

14.2 Division of Algebraic Expressions

14.2.1 Division of a monomial by another monomial

14.2.2 Division of a polynomial by a monomial

14.3 Division of Algebraic Expressions Continued (Polynomial ÷ Polynomial)

14.4 Can you Find the Error?

**15 Introduction to Graphs**

15.1 Introduction to Graphs

15.1.1 A Bar Graph

15.1.2 A Pie graph (or a circle-graph)

15.1.3 A histogram

15.1.4 A line graph

15.2 Linear Graphs

15.2.1 Location of a point

15.2.2 Coordinates

15.3 Application of Graphs

**16 Playing with Numbers**

16.1 Playing with Numbers

16.1.1 Numbers in General Form

16.1.2 Games with Numbers

16.1.3 Letters for Digits

16.2 Tests of Divisibility

16.2.1 Divisibility by 10

16.2.2 Divisibility by 5

16.2.3 Divisibility by 2

16.2.4 Divisibility by 9 & 3

- 180+ Worksheets
- 1800+ Questions
- 100+ notes of formulas and concepts
- Detailed explanations with every question
- Different difficulty levels for each test (Easy, Medium, and Hard)

**ABOUT COURSE :**

Through our e-learning course, we have made sincere attempts to build interest and hone the skills of every student towards Mathematics. Olympiad course is a continuation of our Math course which student can go through to cement its learning of every topic. We ensure to provide enough situations and scenarios through our practice questions for in-depth learning and thinking to begin from the formative years.

We provide worksheets to help students evaluate themselves and learn from their mistakes. Each question also comes with answers. These answers are intended to provide students with a clearer understanding of every concept in detail.

Students who have referred to our class 7 Maths course in the past have shown significant improvements in their overall marks as well as ease of understanding the concepts. Many of the users of this course have cleared the levels of Olympiad exam easily.

**PEDAGOGY :**

Through our e-learning course, we have made sincere attempts to build interest in the child towards Science. We are teaching the basics of all the topics and its applications in real life situations. We also ensure to provide enough situations and scenarios through our practice questions for in-depth learning and thinking to begin from the formative years. Every chapter of the subject has been meticulously designed by subject experts who have years of experience in the field of academics. We also provide worksheets to help students evaluate themselves and learn from their mistakes. Each question also comes with answers. These answers are intended to provide students with a clearer understanding of every concept in detail.

**FEATURES OF THE COURSE :**

• Exhaustive practice tests

• Unlimited attempts

• Friendly self-indulging worksheets

• Progressive practice patterns

• Personalized Learning Dashboard

• Concept-wise Analytics

• Instant feedback mechanism

• All India comparison of progress

**BENEFITS OF THE COURSE :**

• Improved performance – With our scientifically designed content, you are bound to see significant improvements in your performance in Science.

• Attain the desired Learning – Get the desired learning outcome in 8th class Science with our exhaustive models for class 8 CBSE.

• Easy tracking of progress – We provide easy tracking facility to help you understand how you are progressing with every step in the course.

• Self-paced learning – Every individual has a different learning pace. Keeping that in mind, we have designed the course to be self-paced.

• Identify focus areas – You may be better in certain concepts than others. This course will facilitate you for a better understanding of the areas you need to focus more.

• Build strong foundations – With this course, we aim to help you understand every concept of the subject so that your foundation in Science is very strong. Solid foundation right from the formative years will help build your interest in the subject further.

• Simple parent’s supervision – Parents will be able to monitor their children’s performance easily with the features provided in the course.

• Quick re-learning – Even if you fail at solving problems, you will able to solve the problems again till you get it, thus allowing room for re-learning.

**COURSES OFFERED :**

• Class 8 – Physics

• Class 8 – Chemistry

• Class 8 – Biology

• Class 8 – Exam Revision

**SYLLABUS :**

- Chapter 1 - Crop Production and Management
- Chapter 2 - Microorganisms Friend and Foe
- Chapter 3 - Synthetic fibre and plastics
- Chapter 4 - Materials: Metals and non-metals
- Chapter 5 - coal and petroleum
- Chapter 6 - Combustion of flame
- Chapter 7 - Conservation of Plants and Animals
- Chapter 8 - Cell-Structure and Functions
- Chapter 9 - Reproduction in Animals
- Chapter 10 - Reaching the Age of Adolescence
- Chapter 11 - Force and Pressure
- Chapter 12 - Friction
- Chapter 13 - Sound
- Chapter 14 - Chemical effect of an electric current
- Chapter 15 - Some natural phenomenon
- Chapter 16 - Light
- Chapter 17 - Stars and Solar System
- Chapter 18 - Pollution of Air and Water

**DETAILED SYLLABUS :**

**1 CROP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT**

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Agriculture Practices

1.2.1 Kharif Crops

1.2.2 Rabbi Crops

1.3 Basic Practices of Crop Production

1.3.1 Agricultural Implements

1.4 Sowing

1.4.1 Selection of Seeds

1.4.2 Traditional Tools

1.4.3 Seed drill

1.5 Adding Manure and Fertilisers

1.6 Irrigation

1.6.1 Sources of irrigation

1.6.2 Traditional Methods of Irrigation

1.6.3 Modern Methods of Irrigation

1.7 Protection from Weeds

1.8 Harvesting

1.9 Storage

1.10 Food from Animals

**2 MIICROORGANIISMS: FRIIEND AND FOE**

2.1 Introduction to microorganisms

2.2 Microorganisms

2.3 Where do Microorganisms Live?

2.4 Microorganisms and Us

2.4.1 Friendly Microorganisms

2.4.2 Making of Curd and Bread

2.4.3 Commercial Use of Microorganisms

2.4.4 Medicinal Use of Microorganisms

2.4.5 Vaccine

2.4.6 Increasing Soil Fertility

2.4.7 Cleaning the Environment

2.5 Harmful Microorganisms

2.5.1 Disease— causing Microorganisms in Humans

2.5.2 Disease— causing Microorganisms in Animals

2.5.3 Disease— causing Microorganisms in Plants

2.5.4 Food Poisoning

2.6 Food Preservation

2.6.1 Chemical Method

2.6.2 Preservation by Common Salt

2.6.3 Preservation by Sugar

2.6.4 Preservation by Oil and Vinegar

2.6.5 Heat and Cold Treatments

2.6.6 Storage and Packing

2.7 Nitrogen Fixation

2.8 Nitrogen cycle

**3 SYNTHETIIC FIIBRES AND PLASTIICS**

3.1 Introduction

3.2 What are Synthetic Fibres?

3.3 Types of Synthetic Fibres

3.3.1 Rayon

3.3.2 Nylon

3.3.3 Polyester and Acrylic

3.4 Characteristics of Synthetic Fibres

3.5 Plastics

3.6 Plastics as Materials of Choice

3.6.1 Plastic is non-reactive

3.6.2 Plastic is light, strong and durable

3.6.3 Plastics are poor conductors

3.7 Plastics and the Environment

**4 MATERIIALS: METALS AND NON—METALS**

4.1 Physical Properties of Metals and Non-metals

4.2 Chemical Properties of Metals and Non-metals

4.2.1 Reaction with Oxygen

4.2.2 Reaction with water

4.2.3 Reactions with Acids

4.2.4 Reactions with Bases

4.2.5 Displacement Reactions

4.3 Uses of Metals and Nonmetals

**5 COAL AND PETROLEUM**

5.1 Introduction

5.1.1 Inexhaustible Natural Resources

5.1.2 Exhaustible Natural Resources

5.2 Coal

5.2.1 Coke

5.2.2 Coal tar

5.2.3 Coal gas

5.3 Petroleum

5.3.1 Refining of Petroleum

5.4 Natural Gas

5.5 Some Natural Resources are Limited

**6 COMBUSTIION AND FLAME**

6.1 Introduction

6.2 What is Combustion?

6.3 How do We Control Fire?

6.4 Types of Combustion

6.5 Flame

6.6 Structure of a Flame

6.7 What is a Fuel?

6.8 Fuel Efficiency

6.8.1 Burning of Fuels Leads to Harmful Products

**7 CONSERVATIION OF PLANTS AND ANIIMALS**

7.1 Deforestation and Its Causes

7.2 Consequences of Deforestation

7.3 Conservation of Forest and Wildlife

7.4 Biosphere Reserve

7.5 Flora and Fauna

7.6 Endemic Species

7.7 Wildlife Sanctuary

7.8 National Park

7.9 Red Data Book

7.10 Migration

7.11 Recycling of Paper

7.12 Reforestation

**8 CELL — STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIIONS**

8.1 Discovery of the Cell

8.2 The Cell

8.3 Organisms show Variety in Cell Number, Shape and Size

8.3.1 Number of Cells

8.3.2 Shape of Cells

8.3.3 Size of Cells

8.4 Cell Structure and Function

8.5 Parts of the Cell

8.5.1 Cell Membrane

8.5.2 Cytoplasm

8.5.3 Nucleus

8.6 Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells

**9 REPRODUCTIION IIN ANIIMALS**

9.1 Modes of Reproduction

9.2 Sexual Reproduction

9.2.1 Male Reproductive Organs

9.2.2 Female Reproductive Organs

9.2.3 Fertilization

9.2.4 Development of Embryo

9.2.5 Viviparous and Oviparous Animals

9.2.6 Young Ones to Adults

9.3 Asexual Reproduction

**10 REACHIING THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE**

10.1 Adolescence and Puberty

10.2 Changes at Puberty

10.2.1 Increase in Height

10.2.2 Change in Body Shape

10.2.3 Voice Change

10.2.4 Increased Activity of Sweat and Sebaceous Glands

10.2.5 Reaching Mental, Intellectual and Emotional Maturity

10.3 Secondary Sexual Characters

10.4 Role of Hormones in Initiating Reproductive Function

10.5 Reproductive Phase of Life in Humans

10.6 How is the Sex of the Baby Determined

10.7 Hormones other than Sex Hormones

10.8 Role of Hormones in completing the Life History of Insects and Frogs

10.9 Reproductive Health

10.9.1 Nutritional Needs of the Adolescents

10.9.2 Personal Hygiene

10.9.3 Physical exercise

10.9.4 Say “NO” to Drugs

**11 Force and Pressure**

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Force – A Push or a Pull

11.3 Forces are due to an Interaction

11.4 Exploring Forces

11.5 A Force can Change the State of Motion

11.6 Force can Change the Shape of an Object

11.7 Contact

11.7.1 Muscular Force

11.7.2 Friction

11.8 Non-contact Forces

11.8.1 Magnetic Force

11.8.2 Electrostatic Force

11.8.3 Gravitational Force

11.9 Pressure

11.10 Pressure exerted by Liquids and Gases

11.11 Atmospheric Pressure

**12 FRICTION**

12.1 Force of Friction

12.2 Factors affecting Friction

12.3 Friction : A Necessary Evil

12.4 Increasing and Reducing Friction

12.5 Wheels Reduce Friction

12.6 Fluid Friction

**13 SOUND**

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Sound is Produced by a Vibrating Body

13.3 Sound Produced by Humans

13.4 We hear Sound through Our Ears

13.5 Loudness and Pitch

13.6 Amplitude, Time Period And Frequency Of A Vibration

13.7 Audible and Inaudible Sounds

13.8 Noise and Music

13.9 Noise Pollution

13.9.1 Measures to Limit Noise Pollution

**14 CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT**

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Do Liquids Conduct Electricity?

14.3 Chemical Effects of Electric Current

14.4 Electroplating

**15 SOME NATURAL PHENOMENA**

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Lightning

15.3 Charging by rubbing Types of Charges and their Interaction

15.4 Transfer of Charge

15.5 The Story of Lightning

15.6 Lightning Safety

15.6.1 Finding a safe place

15.6.2 Do’s and Don’ts during a Thunderstorm

15.7 Earthquakes

15.7.1 What is an Earthquake?

15.7.2 What Causes an Earthquake?

15.7.3 Protection against Earthquakes

**16 LIIGHT**

16.1 What makes Things Visible

16.2 Laws of Reflection

16.3 Regular and Diffused Reflection

16.4 Reflected Light Can be Reflected Again

16.5 Multiple Images

16.5.1 Kaleidoscope

16.6 Sunlight — White or Coloured

16.7 What is inside Our Eyes?

16.8 Care of Eyes

16.9 Visually Challenged Persons Can Read and Write

16.10 What is a Braille System?

**17 STARS AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM**

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Moon

17.2.1 The Moon’s Surface

17.3 The Stars

17.4 Constellations

17.4.1 Ursa Major

17.4.2 Orion

17.4.3 Cassiopeia

17.5 The Solar System

17.5.1 The Sun

17.5.2 The Planets

17.5.3 Mercury (Budh)

17.5.4 Venus (Shukra)

17.5.5 The Earth

17.5.6 Mars (Mangal)

17.5.7 Jupiter (Brihaspati)

17.5.8 Saturn (Shani)

17.5.9 Uranus and Neptune

17.6 Some Other Members of the Solar System

17.6.1 Asteroids

17.6.2 Comets

17.6.3 Meteors and Meteorites

17.6.4 Artificial Satellites

**18 POLLUTION OF AIR AND WATER**

18.1 Air Pollution

18.2 How does Air Get Polluted?

18.3 Case Study: The Taj Mahal

18.4 Greenhouse Effect

18.5 What can be Done?

18.6 Water Pollution

18.7 How does Water Get Polluted?

18.8 What is Potable Water and How is Water Purified?

18.9 What can be Done?

Class 8 - Biology Olympiad

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CBSE Study Material for Class 8 - Science

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UP Board Study Material for Class 8 - Mathematics

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Saiyam is using EduSaksham online courses from past one year. He is able to complete his tutorials, worksheets, and assignments on his own. Once he is done with worksheets, he can check his answers and if he has done any mistakes, then he can check the correct answers and explanations. They have been given so well that he is able to understand them himself and rarely he asks us for any clarification. He enjoys using the platform and has learned and improved a lot in Mathematics. I would recommend EduSaksham to all parents who want their kids to learn in a structured way and also enjoy the learning process.

I would like to thank Edusaksham on behalf of my son Aditya who attended " Math Olympiad crash course for 5 weeks". As per Aditya, this course helped him to understand new topics like Roman numerals and decimal places which were not taught in his school till date and had a better understanding of other topics. I personally thank EduSaksham for all the help and support.

We had a good experience with EduSaksham. Because sheets are available online, Vedant enjoyed doing more and more sheets without any reminders. I could leave him on his own as he was very much motivated to cover the topics. Practice is very important in maths but it becomes difficult for us to prepare sheets, I am glad we found EduSaksham where in a lot of in a lot of sheets are available for practice and the quality of questions are also good. As it's a venture from IITians we could think of giving it a try and I am glad we tried

I have grown up in a family where my father used to give me practice maths paper every day which I need to finish before I go to play. I think that strong foundation of solving new questions every day helped me to clear my IITJEE exam. But as working women, I always had time challenge to create practice Math papers for my daughter. Thanks to EduSaksham, their questions are so logical and conceptual that I don't feel the guilt of not creating practice questions by myself :). There are plenty of worksheet along with the tutorials for each chapter. It has made parents life easier :) And the best part is my daughter loves doing it. Thank you EduSaksham.

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