## Revisiting Irrational Numbers

CBSE Class 10 Mathematics-Real Numbers- Revisiting Irrational Numbers Notes with Examples. Irrational numbers can not be expressed in p/q form.

### Revisiting Irrational Numbers

Revisiting Irrational Numbers

Irrational numbers are those numbers which cannot be written in the form  , where p and q are integers and q ≠ 0. E.g.,

The square roots of all the numbers do not give an irrational number.

For example,   is an irrational number but  = 2, which is rational.

Therefore square roots of all prime numbers are irrational.

If p is a prime number then  is an irrational number.

Theorem 1:

If a prime number p divides a2, then p divides a, where a is a positive integer.

Proof:

Every positive integer can be expressed as the product of primes.

Let a = p1p2p3 ... ... ... . . pn where p1p2p3 ... ... ... . . pn are all the prime numbers of a.

a2 = (p1p2p3 ... ... ... . . pn)

a2 = (p1p2p3 ... ... ... . . pn)(p1p2p... ... ... . . pn)

a2 = (p12p22p32 ... ... ... . . pn2 )

It is given that p divides a. According to the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, we can say that p is one of the prime factors of a2.

According to the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, the prime factorization of a natural number is unique.

Now the only prime factors of aare p1p2p3 ... ... ... . . pn. Therefore, p is one of p1p2p3 ... ... ... . . pn.

So p is also a factor of a

If p divides a2 then p also divides a.

Let us consider a positive integer 12.

Now, the factors of 12 are 2, 2 and 3.

On squaring 12 we get,

122 = 144

The factors of 144 are 2, 2, 2, 2, 3 and 3.

If one of the factors, let’s say 3 divides 144. Then this factor, 3 will also divide 144, as it is one of the factors of 144 also.

Example: Prove that   is an irrational number.

Let us assume that  is rational. Since it is a rational number it can be expressed in the form    , where a and b are integers and b ≠ 0.

Now, a and b have no common factor other than 1.
=  , where a and b are coprime

On squaring both sides, we get
2 =

2b2 = a2

Therefore, 2 divides a2.

We know that when 2 divides athen 2 divides a also.

We can write a = 2m, where m is an integer.

Putting a = 2m in 2b2 = a2

2b2 = (2m)2

2b2 = 4m2

b2 = 2m2

Again if 2 divides b, then 2 divides b also.

Therefore, 2 is a common factor of a and b.

But this contradicts the fact that a, b have no common factor other than 1.

So, we conclude that   is irrational.

Example: Show that 3√2 is an irrational number.

Let us assume that 3√2 is rational.

Then 3√2 can be expressed in the form  where a and b are integers and b ≠ 0. Now, a and b have no common factor other than 1.

3  , where a and b are coprime integers

=

Since, 3, a and b are integers,  is rational.

Now, a rational number cannot be equal to an irrational number, that is

So, we conclude that 3 is irrational.

Example: Show that 5 −  is irrational.

Let us assume that 5 − is rational. As it is a rational number, it can be

expressed in the form  where a and b are integers and b ≠ 0. Now, a and b have no common factor other than 1.

5 −  =ab, where a and b are coprime

5 −

As, 5, a, and b are integers,   is rational.

Now,  is an irrational number and cannot be equal to a rational number.

So, we conclude that 5 −  is irrational.

Example: Prove that 2√3 + √5 is an irrational number.

Let us assume that 2 + √5 is rational. As it is a rational number, it can be expressed in the form  where a and b are integers and b ≠ 0. Now, a  and b have no common  factor other than 1.

2 +  =  , where a and b are coprime

2 −

On squaring both sides, we get
12 = (
− √5 )2

12 =a2/b2 − 2 + 5

− 2 = 7

− 7 = 2

=

=
Since, 2, 7, a and b are integers  is rational

A rational number cannot be equal to an irrational number.

So, our assumption is wrong. Hence, 2 +  is irrational.

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