Class 9 Science Maharashtra Board

Maharashtra Board Science Syllabus

Class 9 Science Maharashtra Board

 

1.Food

  • Plant and animal breeding andselection for quality improvement.
  • Use of fertilizers, manures.
  • Protection from pests and diseases;organic farming.

2.Materials

  • Matter: All things occupy space,possess mass. Definition of matter,characteristics of solids, liquids andgases e.g. shape, volume, density.Change of state: freezing, melting,evaporation, condensation, sublimation.Cooling by evaporation. Absorption ofheat.
  • Elements, mixtures and Compounds:elements, compounds and mixtures astypes of chemical substances.Types of mixtures; Heterogeneous,homogeneous, colloids, suspensions.
  • Combination of substances: Law ofconstant proportion, atomic andmolecular masses. Particle nature,basic units: Atoms and Molecules.
  • Mole Concept: Relationship of mole tomass of the particles and numbers.Valency. Chemical formulae of commoncompounds.
  • Atomic Structure: Electrons, protonsand neutrons. Atomic number andatomic mass number. Isotopes andIsobars.

3.The World of the Living

  • Biological Diversity
    • Diversity of plants and animals: Basicissues in scientific naming. Basis ofclassification, Hierarchy of categories/groups.
    • Plant classification: Major Plant groups(salient features): Bacteria,
    • Halophyte, Bryophyte, Pteridophyte,gymnosperms and Angiosperms.Animal Classification: Major groups of animals (salient features): Non-Chordates up to phyla and non-chordates up to classes.
  • Smallest living unit of Life
    • Cell: Cellas a basic unit of life prokaryotic andeukaryotic cells, multicellularorganisms; cell membrane and cell wall,cell organelles, chloroplast,mitochondria, vacuoles, ER, Golgiapparatus. Nucleus, chromosomes,basic structure, number. Tissues,organs, organ system, organism
    • Structure and functions of animal andplant tissues. (Four types inanimals;meristematic and permanenttissues in plants).
  • Health
    • Failure of health leading to disease.
    • Disease and its causes.
    • Diseases caused by microbes andtheir prevention: Typhoid, diarrhoea,malaria, hepatitis, rabies, AIDS, TB,Polio.
    • Pulse Polio program.
  • Exchange of substances by livingorganisms with the external world:
    • Diffusion/exchange of substancesbetween cells and their environment andbetween the cell themselves in the livingsystem; role in nutrition, water and foodtransport, excretion, gaseous exchange.

4.Moving Things. People and ideas. Motion.

  • Motion: displacement, velocity, Uniformand non-uniform motion along a straightline,acceleration, distance-time andvelocity-time graphs for motion anduniformly accelerated motion. Equationsof motion by graphical method. Elementary idea of uniform circularmotion.
  • Force and Newton's Laws: Force andMotion; Newton's Laws of Motion. Inertia of body, inertia and mass,momentum, force and acceleration.Elementary idea of conservation ofmomentum, action and reaction forces.
  • Gravitation: gravitation, universal law ofgravitation, force of gravitation of theearth(earth's gravity), acceleration dueto gravity, mass and weight, free fall .
  • Work, Energy and Power: work doneby a force, energy, power. Kinetic andPotential energy, Law of conservationof energy.
  • Floating Bodies: Thrust and Pressure,Archimedes' Principle, Buoyancy. Ideaof relative density.
  • Sound; Nature of sound and itspropagation through different media,speed of sound, range of hearing inhumans; ultrasound; reflection of sound;echo and SONAR Structure of theHuman Ear. (Auditory aspect).

5.Natural Resources – Understanding Ecosystem -

  • Types of ecosystem - forest, grassland,desert, aquatic, costal, marine
  • Interaction between biotic and abioticfactors in an eco-system
  • Energy flow and its importance. Cyclesof nutrients in terrestrial and aquatic(fresh water and marine) ecosystems,nature's mechanism in maintainingbalance.

6.Waste Generation and Management

  • Sources of waste - domestic, industrial,agricultural and commercial
  • Classification of waste: biodegradable non-biodegradable, toxic, non- toxicbiomedical.
  • Impact of waste accumulation -Spoilage of landscape, pollution, healthhazards, effect on terrestrial andaquatic (fresh water and marine) life.
  • Need for management of waste.
  • Methods of safe disposal of wastesegregation, dumping, composting,drainage, treatment of effluents beforedischarge, incineration, use ofscrubbers and electrostaticprecipitators.
  • Need for reducing, reusing and recyclingwaste.
  • Legal provisions for handling and management of waste.
Study Materials for Class 9

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