CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus

In the present attempt of the NCERT to revise the Biology syllabus of the Classes XI and XII, several documents like โ€˜Learning without Burdenโ€™, the National Curriculum Frameworkโ€“ 2005, the report of the โ€˜National Focus Group on Teaching of Scienceโ€™ as well as reports of several external and internal reviews carried out helped to decide the main focus of the revision. Hence, the revised syllabus aims primarily at reducing the information load while ensuring at the same time that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic concepts of Biology continues to be available within the framework. The Biology Syllabus reinforces the ideas introduced in the lower classes while the children learn new concepts besides getting exposure to contemporary areas of Biology. This syllabus aims also at emphasizing the underlying principles that are common to both animals and plants, as well as highlighting the interrelationships of Biology with other areas of knowledge. The format of the syllabus allows a simple, clear, sequential flow of concepts without any jarring jumps. The empirical experience gained and practical exercises carried out during the course would prepare the student to handle Biology easily at higher levels in case she/he opts to continue further studies in this area. The revised syllabus stresses the connection of the study of Biology to real-life problems โ€“ use of biological discoveries/innovations in everyday life โ€“ in environment, industry, medicine, health and agriculture.

1. Reproduction in Organisms

  • Asexual reproduction
  • Sexual reproduction
    • Pre-fertilization event
    • Fertilization
    • Post-fertilization events

 2. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

  • Flower – a fascinating organ of angiosperms
  • Pre-fertilization: structures and events
    • Stamen, Microsporangium and Pollen Grain
    • The Pistil, Megasporangium(ovule) and Embryo sac
    • Pollination
  • Double fertilization
  • Post-fertilization: structures and events
    • Endosperm
    • Embryo
    • Seed
  • Apomixis and polyembryony

3. Human Reproduction

  • The male reproductive system
  • The female reproductive system
  • Gametogenesis
  • Menstrual cycle
  • Fertilization and implantation
  • Pregnancy and embryonic development
  • Parturition and lactation

4. Reproductive Health

  • Reproductive health – problems and
  • Strategies
  • Population stabilization and birth control
  • Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP)
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
  • Infertility

5. Principles of Inheritance and Variation

  • Mendel’s laws of inheritance
  • Inheritance of one gene
    • Law of Dominance
    • Law of Segregation
  • Inheritance of two genes
    • Law of Independent Assortment
    • Law of Independent Assortment
    • Linkage and Recombination
  • Polygenic inheritance
  • Pleiotropy
  • Sex determination
    • Sex Determination in Humans
    • Sex Determination in Honey Bee
  • Mutation
  • Genetic disorders
    • Pedigree Analysis
    • Mendelian Disorders
    • Chromosomal Disorders

6. Molecular Basis of Inheritance

    • Structure of Polynucleotide Chain
    • Packaging of DNA Helix
  • The search for genetic material
    • The Genetic Material is DNA
    • Properties of Genetic Material (DNA versus RNA)
  • RNA world
  • Replication
    • The Experimental Proof
    • The Machinery and the Enzymes
  • Transcription
    • Transcription Unit
    • Transcription Unit and the Gene
    • Types of RNA and the process of Transcription
  • Genetic code
    • Mutations and Genetic Code
    • TRNA– the Adapter Molecule
  • Translation
  • Regulation of gene expression
    • The Lac operon
  • Human genome project
    • Salient Features of Human Genome
    • Applications and Future Challenges
  • DNA fingerprinting

7. Evolution

  • Origin of life
  • Evolution of life forms – a theory
  • What is the evidence for evolution?
  • What is adaptive radiation?
  • Biological evolution
  • Mechanism of evolution
  • Hardy- Weinberg principle
  • A brief account of the evolution
  • Origin and evolution of man

8. Human Health and Disease

  • Common diseases in humans
  • Immunity
    • Innate Immunity
    • Acquired Immunity
    • Active and Passive Immunity
    • Vaccination and Immunisation
    • Allergies
    • Auto Immunity
    • Immune System in the Body
  • Aids
  • Cancer
  • Drugs and alcohol abuse
    • Adolescence and Drug/Alcohol Abuse
    • Addiction and Dependence
    • Effects of Drug/Alcohol Abuse
    • Prevention and Control

9. Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production

  • Animal husbandry
    • Management of Farms and Farm Animals
    • Animal Breeding
    • Bee-keeping
    • Fisheries
  • Plant breeding
    • What is Plant Breeding?
    • Plant Breeding for Disease Resistance
    • Plant Breeding for Developing Resistance to Insect Pests
    • Plant Breeding for Improved Food Quality
  • Single-Cell Protein (SCP)
  • Tissue culture

10. Microbes in Human Welfare

  • Microbes in household products
  • Microbes in industrial products
    • Fermented Beverages
    • Antibiotics
    • Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules
      • Microbes in sewage treatment
      • Microbes in production of biogas
      • Microbes as biocontrol agents
      • Microbes as biofertilizers

11. Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

  • Principles of biotechnology
  • Tools of recombinant DNA technology
    • Restriction enzymes
    • Cloning Vectors
    • Competent Host (For Transformation with
    • Recombinant DNA)
  • Process Of Recombinant DNA Technology
    • Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA)
    • Cutting of DNA at Specific Locations
    • Amplification of Gene of Interest using PCR
    • Insertion of Recombinant DNA into the Host
    • Cell/Organism
    • Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product
    • Downstream Processing

12. Biotechnology and its Applications

  • Biotechnological applications in
  • Agriculture
  • Biotechnological applications in medicine
    • Genetically Engineered Insulin
    • Gene Therapy
    • Molecular Diagnosis
  • Transgenic animals
  • Ethical issues

13. Organisms and Populations

  • Organism and its environment
    • Major Abiotic Factors
    • Responses to Abiotic Factors
    • Adaptations
  • Populations
    • Population Attributes
    • Population Growth
    • Life History Variation
    • Population Interactions

14. Ecosystem

  • Ecosystem – structure and function
  • Productivity
  • Decomposition
  • Energy flow
  • Ecological pyramids
  • Ecological pyramids
    • Succession of Plants
  • Nutrient cycling
    • Ecosystem – Carbon Cycle
    • Ecosystem – Phosphorus Cycle
  • Ecosystem services

15. Biodiversity and Conservation

  • Biodiversity
    • How Many Species are there on Earth and How Many in India?
    • Patterns of Biodiversity
    • The importance of Species Diversity to the Ecosystem
    • Loss of Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity Conservation
    • Why Should We Conserve Biodiversity?
    • How do we conserve Biodiversity?

16. Environmental Issues

  • Air pollution and its control
    • Controlling vehicular air pollution: a case study of Delhi
  • Water pollution and its control
    • Domestic sewage and industrial effluents
    • A case study of integrated wastewater treatment
  • Solid wastes
    • Case study of remedy for plastic waste
  • Agro-chemicals and their effects
    • Case study of organic farming
  • Radioactive wastes
  • Greenhouse effect and global warming
  • Ozone depletion in the stratosphere
  • Degradation by improper resource utilization
  • And maintenance
  • Deforestation
    • Case Study of People’s Participation in Conservation of Forests

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