CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus

The proposed syllabus for Physics at the Higher Secondary Stage has been developed with a view that this stage of school education is crucial and challenging as it is a transition from general science to discipline-based curriculum. The recommendations of National Curriculum Frameworkโ€“ 2005 have been followed, keeping the disciplinary approach with rigour and depth, appropriate to the comprehension level of learners. Due care has been taken that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the international standards. The syllabus provides logical sequencing of the subject matter with proper placement of concepts with their linkages for better understanding. It is expected that the syllabus will help to develop an interest in the learners to study Physics as a discipline and inculcate in learners the abilities, useful concepts of Physics in real-life situations for making learning of Physics relevant, meaningful and interesting. The learner is expected to realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines. Rationale The higher secondary stage is crucial and challenging stage of school education as it is a transition from general science to discipline-based curriculum. Physics is being offered as an elective subject at the higher secondary stage of school education. At this stage, the students take up Physics, as a discipline, with a purpose of pursuing their future careers in basic sciences or professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology and studying courses in applied areas of science and technology at the tertiary level. There is a need to provide the learners with sufficient conceptual background of Physics which would eventually make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the higher secondary stage. The present effort of reforming and updating the Physics curriculum is an exercise-based on the feedback received from the school system about the existing syllabus and curricular material, large expansion of Physics knowledge, and also the educational and curricular concerns and issues provided in the National Curriculum Framework โ€“ 2005. The recommendations of the National Curriculum Framework โ€“ 2005 have been followed, keeping the disciplinary approach with rigour and depth, appropriate to the comprehension level of learners. Due care has been taken that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same time, it is comparable to the international standards. Also, it is essential to develop linkages with other disciplines for better learning of Physics concepts and establishing a relationship with daily-life situations and life-skills.

1. Electric Charges And Fields

  • Introduction
  • Electric Charge
  • Conductors and Insulators
  • Charging by Induction
  • Basic Properties of Electric Charge
  • Coulomb’s Law
  • Forces between Multiple Charges
  • Electric Field
  • Electric Field Lines
  • Electric Flux
  • Electric Dipole
  • Dipole in a Uniform External Field
  • Continuous Charge Distribution
  • Gauss’s Law
  • Applications of Gauss’s Law

2. Electrostatic Potential And Capacitance

  • Introduction
  • Electrostatic Potential
  • Potential due to a Point Charge
  • Potential due to an Electric Dipole
  • Potential due to a System of Charges
  • Equipotential Surfaces
  • Potential Energy of a System of Charges
  • Potential Energy in an External Field
  • Electrostatics of Conductors
  • Dielectrics and Polarisation
  • Capacitors and Capacitance
  • The Parallel Plate Capacitor
  • Effect of Dielectric on Capacitance
  • Combination of Capacitors
  • Energy Stored in a Capacitor

3. Current Electricity

  • Introduction
  • Electric Current
  • Electric Currents in Conductors
  • Ohm’s law
  • Drift of Electrons and the Origin of Resistivity
  • Limitations of Ohm’s Law
  • Resistivity of Various Materials
  • Temperature Dependence of Resistivity
  • Electrical Energy, Power
  • Combination of Resistors — Series and Parallel
  • Cells, EMF, Internal Resistance
  • Cells in Series and in Parallel
  • Kirchhoff’s Rules
  • Wheatstone Bridge
  • Meter Bridge
  • Potentiometer

4. Moving Charges And Magnetism

  • Introduction
  • Magnetic Force
  • Motion in a Magnetic Field
  • Motion in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields
  • Magnetic Field due to a Current Element , Biot-Savart Law
  • Magnetic Field on the Axis of a Circular Current Loop
  • Ampere’s Circuital Law
  • The Solenoid and the Toroid
  • Force between Two Parallel Currents, the Ampere
  • Torque on Current Loop, Magnetic Dipole
  • The Moving Coil Galvanometer

 5. Magnetism And Matter

  • Introduction
  • The Bar Magnet
  • Magnetism and Gauss’s Law
  • The Earth’s Magnetism
  • Magnetisation and Magnetic Intensity
  • Magnetic Properties of Materials
  • Permanent Magnets and Electromagnets

 6. Electromagnetic Induction

  • Introduction
  • The Experiments of Faraday and Henry
  • Magnetic Flux
  • Faraday’s Law of Induction
  • Lenz’s Law and Conservation of Energy
  • Motional Electromotive Force
  • Energy Consideration: A Quantitative Study
  • Eddy Currents
  • Inductance
  • AC Generator

 7. Alternating Current

  • Introduction
  • AC Voltage Applied to a Resistor
  • Representation of AC Current and Voltage by Rotating Vectors — Phasors
  • AC Voltage Applied to an Inductor
  • AC Voltage Applied to a Capacitor
  • AC Voltage Applied to a Series LCR Circuit Power in AC Circuit: The Power Factor
  • LC Oscillations
  • Transformers

8.Electromagnetic Waves

  • Introduction
  • Displacement Current
  • Electromagnetic Waves
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum

 9. Ray Optics And Optical Instruments

  • Introduction
  • Reflection of Light by Spherical Mirrors
  • Refraction
  • Total Internal Reflection
  • Refraction at Spherical Surfaces and by Lenses
  • Refraction through a Prism
  • Some Natural Phenomena due to Sunlight
  • Optical Instruments

 10. Wave Optics

  • Introduction
  • Huygens Principle
  • Refraction and Reflection of Plane Waves using Huygens Principle
  • Coherent and Incoherent Addition of Waves
  • Interference of Light Waves and Young’s Experiment
  • Diffraction
  • Polarisation

11. Dual Nature Of Radiation And Matter

  • Introduction
  • Electron Emission
  • Photoelectric Effect
  • Experimental Study of Photoelectric Effect
  • Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light
  • Einstein’s Photoelectric Equation: Energy Quantum of Radiation
  • Particle Nature of Light: The Photon
  • Wave Nature of Matter
  • Davisson and GermerExperiment

 12. Atoms

  • Introduction
  • Alpha-particle Scattering and Rutherford’s Nuclear Model of Atom
  • Atomic Spectra
  • Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom
  • The Line Spectra of the Hydrogen Atom
  • DE Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Second Postulate of quantisation

 13. Nuclei

  • Introduction
  • Atomic Masses and Composition of Nucleus
  • Size of the Nucleus
  • Mass-Energy and Nuclear Binding Energy
  • Nuclear Force
  • Radioactivity
  • Nuclear Energy

 14. Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices, and Simple Circuits

  • Introduction
  • Classification of Metals, Conductors and Semiconductors
  • Intrinsic Semiconductor
  • Extrinsic Semiconductor
  • p-n Junction
  • Semiconductor Diode
  • Application of Junction Diode as a Rectifier
  • Special Purpose p-n Junction Diodes
  • Digital Electronics and Logic Gates

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